There are quite a lot of interesting discoveries the science community has been finding from the Aquarius data over the ocean. The dynamics involving fresh water from precipitation and how it mixes with upper layers of the ocean is of special interest. Satellites measure salinity at the surface. We also use ocean buoys, but readings use conductivity sensors to measure salinity at a depth of about five meters, a depth at which algae is less likely to grow. We know that the surface layer, aerated by wave motion and carrying warm water in the tropics, is conducive to algae growth. Sensors placed closer to the surface would become fouled with algae and no longer function. At a depth of five meters, algae growth is discouraged, the increased salinity at depth acts much the same as chlorine would in a swimming pool. The ever-changing salinity dynamic in the top five meters of the oceans has recently become a topic of great interest to oceanographers and climate scientists. Its understanding is now seen as a key factor in predicting weather patterns and changing climate.
Simon Yueh, Aquarius/SMAP Project Scientist, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2014 [Interviewer: Chris Howell]